Младши експерт в Министерството на труда и социалната политика
A sample taken from any given population in which each person maintains equal chances of being selected.
A descriptive central tendency statistics that expresses the
difference between the highest and lowest scores in the data set; example: responses to a question on a 1 to 5 Likert-type scale where all reaction categories were used would yield a range of 4 (5 minus 1).
(1) The amount charged by a communications medium to an advertiser based on per unit of space or time purchased. The rate may vary from national to local campaigns, or may be a fixed rate. (2) To estimate a particular media"s audience size based on a research sample.
Information cards, provided by both print and broadcast media, which contain information concerning advertising costs, mechanical requirements, issue dates, closing dates, cancellation dates, and circulation data, etc.
Rate of return pricing
A method of determining prices by adding a markup that will produce a predetermined return on investment.
(1) In television, one percentage of all TV households who are viewing a particular station at a given time. (2) In radio, one percentage of all listeners who are listening to a particular station at a given time. Both instances vary depending on time of day.
Measurement data that are defined on a continuum and
possess an absolute zero point; examples: number of children, a bank account, absolute lack of heat
(0° Kelvin = -459.67° or -273.15C).
Rational Buying Motives
Reasons for buying that are based on logic or judgement rather than on emotion.
(1) The estimated number of individuals in the audience of a broadcast that is reached at least once during a specific period of time. (2) Also applies to Outdoor advertising audiences.
Refers to the scope or range of distribution and thus coverage that a given communication product has
in a targeted audience group; broadcasting, the net unduplicated (also called "duplicated") radio or TV audience for programs or commercials as measured for a
specific time period.
Reactive Marketing Control Systems
Evaluation and control systems in which management finds that marketing performance is not satisfactory and takes corrective action; after-the-fact and steering control are reactive systems.
(1) The total number of readers of a publication (includes Primary and Pass-along readers). (2) The percentage of people that can recall a particular advertisement, aided or unaided.
Number of people who actually read each issue of a
publication, on average; s. an outcome variable that often serves as a dependent variable; see also:
dependent variable, outcome.
An agreement where two Web site adminstrators agree to link to each other's site. Such activity serves to increase the content value of a site and raise a site's ranking in search engines.
(1) Formal acknowledgment given by a communications medium to an advertising agency to recognize that agency as being bona fide, competent, and ethical; therefore, entitled to discounts. (2) The ability of research subjects to recall a particular ad or campaign when they see or hear it.
A group of people or organization of which an individual respects, identifies with, or aspires to join, e.g., membership or associative groups.
A premium offered to customers for helping sell a product or service to a friend or acquaintance.
manufacturers' brands sold only in certain regions
Indicator symbols located in the margins of negatives to be used as guides for perfect registration.
A statistical tool that predicts outcomes based on one
outcome (dependent) variable and one predictor (independent) variable; see also: Multiple regression; m. a source of error or invalidity in experimental methodology that may impact on the validity of the
experiment; see also: experimental methodology, validity, inferential statistics.
the degree to which a new product is superior to an existing one; a major determinant of the rate of adoption of a new product.
The extent to which results would be consistent, or
replicable, if the research were conducted a number of times; s. a statistical measure accessing consistency of a measure, usually through the Coefficient Alpha or
KR-20 statistic in measurement or Cohen's Kappa, Hosti's reliability coefficient, Krippendorf's alpha, or Scott's pi; see also: measurement reliability, Cohen's Kappa, Holsti's
reliability coefficient, Scott's pi.
the accuracy with which data in a marketing research study has been collected; a reliable marketing research study should produce similar results if repeated
advertising aimed at reminding a target market that a product is available as opposed to informing or persuading it; typically associated with products in the mature stage of their life cycle. Also referred to as Retentive Advertising.
Discounted magazine space which is sold to help fill regional editions of the publication.
The percentage of individuals that renew their print media subscriptions to extend beyond the previous expiration date.
Rep or Representative
A person who solicits advertising space on behalf of a particular medium.
arranging for a product or brand to occupy some other clear and distinctive position in the market and in the minds of target consumers than that which it presently occupies; repositioning may be necessary or desirable if sales expectations are not being met, or to allow for the introduction to the market of a new product or brand, or similar.
the degree to which a sample of consumers in a marketing research study represents the characteristics of the population as a whole.
The volume of purchase and the amount of time that typically occur between consumer or retailer purchasing occasions for a specific product.
An outcome variable often used dependent variable in
public relations research dealing with the public's perception of some source's credibility, trustworthiness,
or image based on the source's behavior; see also: dependent variable.
The systematic effort before (formative research) or during
and/or after (summative or evaluative research) a
communication activity aimed at discovering and collecting the facts or opinions pertaining to an identified issue, need, or question; may be formal or informal.
Unknown or unacknowledged error created during the design, measurement, sampling, procedure, or choice of
problem studied; see also: experimental methodology, validity, regression.
the controlling plan for a marketing research study in which the methods and procedures for collecting and analysing the information to be collected is specified
Tool used to collect data; see also, questionnaire,
interview schedule, semi-structured interview, structured interview.
a form of nonprobability sampling in which the researcher selects the respondents in a marketing research study. It may result in researcher bias
A sum paid to a performer on a TV or radio commercial each time it is run, and is usually established by AFTRA (American Federation of Television and Radio Artists) or SAG (Screen Actors Guild) contract.
Refers to the clarity of a television image as received by a set.
The individual from whom data is collected through
participation in a research campaign; sometimes called participant or, in psychological study, subject.
From survey methodology, the number of respondents who actually completed an interview; s. the percentage of
completed surveys (often adjusted for mailing errors).
a elementary form of selling, common in retailing, in which the salesperson simply responds to the customer's demands; little creativity or persuasion is used
the degree to which people control their emotions when relating to others; used in selling as an indicator of social style
Sales items that are not legally sold in certain geographic areas, or only under special legal restrictions.
The outcome demonstrated to have been impacted upon by a public relations campaign; m. that which is measured in a campaign as dependent variables; see also:
dependent variable, outcome, output, outtake, outgrowth.
Advertising which promotes local merchandisers' goods and services. Also referred to as Local Advertising.
advertising by retailers direct to consumers
an individual employed by a retailer primarily to buy merchandise for resale through the store
the perception that consumers have of a particular store and of the experience of shopping there
The spatial distribution of retail stores and store types, including the composition of groupings of stores, spacing, and relationship to market.
Retail trading zone
Defined by the Audit Bureau of Circulation as the area beyond an urban area whose residents regularly trade with retail merchants within the urban area.
the activity of selling to buyers who are buying for their own ultimate consumption
To alter photographs, artwork, or film to emphasize or introduce desired features and also to eliminate unwanted ones.
Return on Equity
a measure of a firm's profitability; profit achieved in a given period is expressed as a percentage of the total amount invested in the firm by its owners
Return on Investment (ROI)
An outcome variable that equates profit from investment; see also: Public relations return on investment,
a type of consumer sales promotion in which potential customers are encouraged to buy a particular product because it is packaged in a container that can be used for some other useful purpose when empty
a practice in which a firm gives supply preference to another from which it buys
A very rough rendition of a proposed commercial, composed of images and sounds borrowed (ripped-off) from other commercials or broadcast materials.
measures including acquiring information, seeking reassurance from family and friends, obtaining advice from experts, etc. taken by purchasers to reduce the level of anxiety they experience when buying
A method of scheduling broadcast commercials to obtain maximum reach by simultaneously showing the identical advertisement on several different stations.
the launch of a new product on a region by region basis as opposed to a national introduction; the rollout is intended to minimise the risk and to reduce the investment in production and marketing
Written material that accompanies an advertising specialty, providing information about the product and its background.
A magazine supplement that is printed by a gravure process, and run on a rotary press. This process is useful for large runs of pictorial effects.
The process of using live and animated characters within an advertisement.
An unfinished layout of an ad which shows only a general conception to be presented for analysis, criticism, and approval.
A preliminary arrangement of film or tape shots that are roughly edited together without voice-over or music to serve purpose in the early stages of editing.
a sales team consisting of salespeople who call on existing customers to take orders for the company's products; the route sales force does not sell in the traditional sense, but merely inspects a retailer's shelves and restocks them as required.
Routine Response Behaviour
a buying situation in which the buyer has had considerable past experience; also called Automatic Response Behaviour or Habitual Response Behaviour
the planning of the best route to be followed by a sales representative in making a series of sales calls; good routing raises both the number of calls the representative is able to make and the ratio of selling time to non-selling time
A newspaper publisher's option to place an ad anywhere in the publication that they choose, as opposed to Preferred position. Also referred to as Run-of paper.
A station's option to place a commercial in any time slot that they choose.
a strategic decision to allow a product in the decline stage of its life-cycle to continue to be sold, especially if the product has a sizable hard-core market which insists on buying it; often, the marketer may raise the price a little to obtain a slight premium price while paring all promotional costs
Rough, unedited prints of a commercial to be used for editing purposes. Also referred to as dallies.